Science, technology and innovation:
- Improving observation, monitoring and forecasting systems and other technologies (e.g. portable modelling);
- Effective use of latest/advanced and appropriate/suitable/fit-for-purpose science and technology (e.g. innovative low-cost measures and novel IT tools);
- Governance challenges to effectively and sustainably integrate and test new technologies, approaches, data sources (Big data, satellite-based data, crowdsourcing, etc.) to enhance monitoring and forecasting capabilities and to build and share relevant and fit-for-purpose risk information;
- Ensure socially relevant warning communication technologies;
- Incorporating science and technical research departments and institutes, agencies, and universities in national (multi-hazard) early warning systems (e.g. through working closely with academia through secondments, PhD programmes and/or embedding research institutes/departments within the organizations delivering key components of the warning system;
- Implications for the research agenda; and
- Private-public collaborations for improved observation, monitoring and forecasting.